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The paleolithic diet (abbreviated paleo diet or paleodiet), also popularly referred to as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet and hunter-gatherer diet, is a modern nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic eraa period of about 2.5 million years which ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture and grain-based diets. In common usage, the term "paleolithic diet" can also refer to actual ancestral human diets, insofar as these can been reconstructed.
Centered on commonly available modern foods, the contemporary "Paleolithic diet" consists mainly of fish, grass-fed pasture raised meats, eggs, vegetables, fruit, fungi, roots, and nuts, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, potatoes, refined salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.
First popularized in the mid-1970s by gastroenterologist Walter L. Voegtlin, this nutritional concept has been promoted and adapted by a number of authors and researchers in several books and academic journals. A common theme in evolutionary medicine, Paleolithic nutrition is based on the premise that modern humans are genetically adapted to the diet of their Paleolithic ancestors and that human genetics have scarcely changed since the dawn of agriculture, and therefore that an ideal diet for human health and well-being is one that resembles this ancestral diet.
Proponents of this diet argue that modern human populations subsisting on traditional diets allegedly similar to those of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers are largely free of diseases of affluence, and that multiple studies of the Paleolithic diet in humans have shown improved health outcomes relative to other widely recommended diets. Supporters also point to several potentially therapeutic nutritional characteristics of preagricultural diets.
The paleolithic diet is a controversial topic amongst some dietitians and anthropologists, and an article on the National Health Service of the United Kingdom Choices website refers to it as a fad diet. Critics have argued that to the extent that hunter-gatherer societies fail to suffer from "diseases of civilization", this may be due to reduced calories in their diet, shorter average lifespans, or a variety of other factors, rather than dietary composition. Some researchers have also taken issue with the accuracy of the diet`s underlying evolutionary logic or suggested that the diet could potentially pose health risks.
A 2011 ranking by U.S. News & World Report, involving a panel of 22 experts, ranked the Paleo diet lowest of the 20 diets evaluated based on factors including health, weight-loss and ease of following. These results were repeated in the 2012 survey, in which the diet tied with the Dukan diet for the lowest ranking out of 29 diets; U.S. News & World Report stated that their experts "took issue with the diet on every measure". However, one expert involved in the ranking stated that a "true Paleo diet might be a great option: very lean, pure meats, lots of wild plants. The modern approximations are far from it." He added that "duplicating such a regimen in modern times would be difficult."
The U.S. News ranking assumed a low-carb version of the paleo diet, specifically containing only 23% carbohydrates. Higher carbohydrate versions of the paleo diet, which allow for significant consumption of root vegetables, were not a part of this ranking. Dr. Loren Cordain, a proponent of a low-carbohydrate Paleolithic diet, responded to the U.S. News ranking, stating that their "conclusions are erroneous and misleading" and pointing out that "five studies, four since 2007, have experimentally tested contemporary versions of ancestral human diets and have found them to be superior to Mediterranean diets, diabetic diets and typical western diets in regard to weight loss, cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk factors for type 2 diabetes." The editors of the U.S. News ranking replied that they had reviewed the five studies and found them to be "small and short, making strong conclusions difficult".
The paleolithic diet is a modern dietary regimen that seeks to mimic the diet of preagricultural hunter-gatherers, one that corresponds to what was available in any of the ecological niches of Paleolithic humans. Based upon commonly available modern foods, it includes cultivated plants and domesticated animal meat as an alternative to the wild sources of the original preagricultural diet. The ancestral human diet is inferred from historical and ethnographic studies of modern-day hunter-gatherers as well as archaeological finds, anthropological evidence and application of optimal foraging theory.
The Paleolithic diet consists of foods that can be hunted and fished, such as meat, offal and seafood, and can be gathered, such as eggs, insects, fruit, nuts, seeds, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and spices. Some sources advise eating only lean cuts of meat, free of food additives, preferably wild game meats and grass-fed beef since they contain higher levels of omega-3 fats compared with grain-produced domestic meats. Food groups that advocates claim were rarely or never consumed by humans before the Neolithic (agricultural) revolution are excluded from the diet, mainly grains, legumes (e.g. beans and peanuts), dairy products, salt, refined sugar and processed oils, although some advocates consider the use of oils with low omega-6/omega-3 ratios, such as olive oil and canola oil, to be healthy and advisable.
On the Paleolithic diet, practitioners are permitted to drink mainly water, and some advocates recommend tea as a healthy drink, but alcoholic and fermented beverages are restricted from the diet. Furthermore, eating a wide variety of plant foods is recommended to avoid high intakes of potentially harmful bioactive substances, such as goitrogens, which are present in some roots, vegetables and seeds. Unlike raw food diets, all foods may be cooked, without restrictions. However, raw Paleolithic dieters exist who believe that humans have not adapted to cooked foods, and so they eat only foods which are both raw and Paleolithic.
According to certain proponents of the Paleolithic diet, practitioners should derive about 5665% of their food energy from animal foods and 3645% from plant foods.
Paleo meal on the Mangalitsa (Paleo) Festival - Budapest, 2013
They recommend a diet high in protein (1935% energy) and relatively low in carbohydrates (2240% energy), with a fat intake (2858% energy) similar to or higher than that found in Western diets. Furthermore, some proponents exclude from the diet foods which exhibit high glycemic indices, such as potatoes. Staffan Lindeberg advocates a Paleolithic diet, but does not recommend any particular proportions of plants versus meat or macronutrient ratios.
According to Lindaberga, calcium supplementation may be considered when the intake of green leafy vegetables and other dietary sources of calcium is limited.Physical activity
The evolutionary rationale has also been applied by researchers into the paleolithic lifestyle to argue for high levels of physical activity in addition to dietary practices. It has been proposed that human genes "evolved with the expectation of requiring a certain threshold of physical activity" and that sedentary lifestyle results in abnormal gene expression. Compared to ancestral humans, modern humans often have increased body fat and substantially less lean muscle, which is a risk factor for insulin resistance. Human metabolic processes were evolved in the presence of physical activity-rest cycles, which regularly depleted skeletal muscles of their glycogen stores. To date it is unclear whether these activity cycles universally included prolonged endurance activity (e.g. persistence hunting) and/or shorter, higher intensity activity. S. Boyd Eaton estimated that ancestral humans spent one-third of their caloric intake on physical activity (1000 kcal/day out of the total caloric intake of 3000 kcal/day), and that the paleolithic lifestyle was well approximated by the WHO recommendation of the physical activity level of 1.75, or 60 minutes/day of moderate-intensity exercise. L. Cordain estimated that the optimal level of physical activity is on the order of 90 kcal/kg/week (900 kcal/day for a 70 kg human.)
*parts from wikepedia now that you know what it is I`ll put my review up.*
I`ve tried this diet for two weeks losing 5 lbs yay. Will do this diet until I get my desired weight its the fastest result diet ever and im not starving at all, give this a try.